What is Summative Assessment?
Formative assessment occurs during instructional process, but on the other hand, Summative assessment occurs at the end of the instructional session (course of the unit). Summative assessment takes place after the instructional period has been completed and provides learners feedback and information that sums up the teaching and learning process. Unlike, formative assessments, no formal learning is taking place at this stage, other than incidental learning which might take place through the completion of assignments and projects.
The main objective of summative assessment is to assign grades to the learners and certifying the level of mastery and expertise in a certain subject. Summative assessment is achieved through instructor made achievement tests or alternative assessment techniques like portfolio to summarize the learners’ overall performance at the end of the academic session. There is no compulsion that it will occur at the end of academic session or at the end of the semester. It can be achieved during academic session s in semester system, there is a midterm and final term in one semester, or weekly/monthly tests and these both are summative assessment.
It usually compares the student learning either criterion-referenced (the standard for a grade level) or norm-referenced (with other students’ learning). It includes instructor made survey test, rating scales, product scales and performance. Summative assessment is a pure product-oriented measurement and assesses the final product, however, formative assessment focuses on the ongoing process toward completion of the product.
Different Types of Summative Assessment
· Term papers as in semester system
· Projects submitted at various completion points
· Major examinations
· Final examinations
Different Functions of Summative Assessment
· Most important functions of summative assessment is to assign grade or certification of accomplishment.
· Focus of measurement in summative assessment is on course or unit objectives.
· Broad sample of all objectives is used in summative assessment.
· Summative assessment uses extensive range of difficulty while choosing items for the test.
· Such assessment is done at the end of the course.