Present Perfect Tense | English Grammar

Present Perfect Tense

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Introduction to Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense is used to describe an action that has taken place in the past but has a connection with the present. We do not specify the exact time that the action had taken place in when using this tense.

For example,

·         I have seen this movie before. It was quite good.

·         In the sentence above, the subject has seen a movie, the memory of which remains in his mind.

 

Present perfect tense is also used to describe an action that  started in the past and ended in the present.

For example,

·         The youngest daughter of the Brightons has grown into a beautiful lady.

In the sentence above, we are more interested in what happened in the result of the action rather than the action itself.

 

Before getting into the depth of the present perfect tense, we shall discuss what past participles are.

Past Participles

As we know, that there basically are three forms of verb. The first form of verb  is the base form, the second form is the simple past and the third form is the past participle. How do we form a past participle? There is no hard and fast rule. It differs for irregular and regular verbs. One needs to memorize it by heart.

 

• Regular verbs:

Past participles of irregular verbs can be formed by adding -ed, -d or -t to the base form of the verbs. For example, past participle of learn is learnt, hook is hooked, conceive is conceived etc.

 

• Irregular verbs

Past participles for irregular verbs are differently made. We do not just add -e, -d or -t to the base form. For example, past participle of write is written, drive is driven, go is gone etc.

Past participle of many irregular verbs are the same as the second their second forms. For example,

Second  (simple past) and third form (Past Participle) of care is cared, teach is taught, learn is learnt, dig is dug, feel is felt etc.

 

Forming sentences in present perfect tense is quite easy if one is well acquainted with the past participle (3rd form) of verbs.

 

Forming Sentences In Present Perfect Tense:

In order to form different sentences in present perfect tense, we follow the following formats.

 

How to make affirmative sentences in present perfect tense?

To make affirmative sentences in present perfect tense, we follow the following format:

Subject + has/have + Past Participle + Object (if any)

For example,

·         Arya and Lucy have learnt to write Spanish recently.

·         I have managed to keep my cool when Aurora talks.

·         You have done a great job with that presentation.

·         Andrew has loved his parents all his life.

 

How to make negative sentences in the present perfect tense?

To make negative sentences in present perfect tense, we follow the following format:

Subject + has/have + not + Past Participle + Object (if any)

For example,

·         My friends have not forgiven me.

·         Rani has not finished the book yet.

·         Joanna has not finished the book that she started writing.

·         It has not rained for weeks now.

·         You have not taken the issue seriously.

 

How to ask questions in the present perfect tense?

To ask questions in the present perfect tense,  we follow the following format:

Has/have + Subject + Past Participle + Object (if any)

For example,

·         Have you seen the girl with the golden locks?

·         Has Jacob paid his bills which were due this month?

·         Have Sam and Lily broken the vase and hid it?

·         Have I done something wrong in the paper?

·         Have you learnt to cook pasta yetp?

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